David Roubik

Pollen and Spores of Barro Colorado Island

Hello,

We, the makers of these plates for our book on pollen and spores of Barro Colorado Island, would like to give some working palynologists the chance to view them on line. They are also available for “cutting and pasting”, together with their names (see below).

If this helps to organize, classify and study these pollen and spore types, then we will have met our present goal- to make this information more accessible to all. We encourage users to inform us of any problems or suggestions concerning these photomicrographs. Their diagnostic traits and collection localities, along with keys, are available in the original book, published by the Missouri Botanical Garden in October, 1991.

[Please note that the names in brackets are, to our knowledge, the senior synonyms that should replace names given in T. Croat’s original book on the Flora of BCI]

Sincerely,
David Ward Roubik
Jorge Enrique Moreno Patiño
La Ciudad de Panamá, marzo 2003



Plates 1 - 10
1

Plate 1. CRYPTOGAMAE: Lycopodophyta; Lycopodiaceae: Lycopodium cernuum (1), L. dichotomum (2); Selaginellaceae: Selaginella arthritica (3), S. exaltata (4), S. flagellata (5), S. haematodes (6), S. horizontalis ‘microspore’(7) and ‘megaspore’ (7a); PTEROPHYTA; CYATHEACEAE: Cnemidaria ptetiolata [Cyathea petiolata] (8), Metaxya rostrata (9)

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Plate 2. Cyatheaceae: Nephelea cuspidata [Alsophila cuspidata] (10), Trichopteris microdonta [Cyathea microdonta] (11), T. trichiata [Cyathea trichiata] (12); Gleicheniaceae: Dicranopteris flexuosa (13), Gleichenia bifida [Sticherus bifidus] (14); Hymenophyllaceae: Hymenophyllum brevifrons (15), Trichomanes ekmanii (16), T. godmannii (17),T. pinnatum (18), T. polypodioides (19), T. punctatum sphenoides (20); Marattiaceae: Danaea nodosa (21); Ophioglossaceae: Ophioglossum reticulatum (22)

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3

Plate 3. Parkeriaceae: Ceratopteris deltoidea (23), C. pteridoides (24); Polypodiaceae: Acrostichum aureum (25)

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4

Plate 4. Polypodiaceae: Acrostichum danaifolium (26), Adiantum decoratum (27), A. fructuosum (28), A. humile (29), A. lucidum (30), A. lunulatum (31), A. obliquum (32), A. pulverulentum (33), A. petiolatum (34)

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5

Plate 5. Polypodiaceae: Ananthacorus angustifolius [Vittaria costata] (35), Anetium citrifolium (36), Asplenium delitescens (37), A. falcinellum [A. juglandifolium] (38), A. laetum (39), A. serratum (40), Blechnum occidentale (41), B. serrulatum (42)

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6

Plate 6. Polypodiaceae: Bolbitis cladorrhizans [B. portoricensis] (43), B. nicotianifolia (44), Ctenitis sloanei (45), Cyclopeltis semicordata (46), Dennstaedtia cicutaria (47), Dicranoglossum panamense (48), Dictyoxiphium panamense (49), Diplazium grandifolium (50)

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Plate 7. Polypodiaceae: Elaphoglossum hayesii (51), E. sporadolepis (52), Hemidictyum marginatum (53), Lomariopsis vestita [L. fendleri] (54), Maxonia apiifolia dualis (55), Nephrolepis biserrata (56)

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8

Plate 8. Polypodiaceae: Pityrogramma calomelanos (57), Polypodium costaricense (58), P. crassifolium [Niphidium crassifolium] (59), Nephrolepis pendula (60), Polypodium ciliatum [Microgramma reptans] (61), P. hygrometricum (62), P. lycopodioides (63), P. maritimum (64), P. occultum [Campyloneurum occultum] (65), P. pectinatum (66)

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9

Plate 9. Polypodiaceae: Polypodium percussum [Microgramma percussa] (67), P. phyllitidis [Campyloneurum phyllitidis] (68), P. polypodioides (69), P. triseriale (70), Pteris altissima (71), P. grandifolia (72), P. propinqua (73)

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Plate 10. Polypodiaceae: Saccoloma elegans (74), Tectaria euryloba [T. nicotianifolia] (75), T. incisa (76), Thelypteris balbisii (77), T. dentata (78), T. extensa (79), T. nicaraguensis (80)

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Plates 11 - 20
11

Plate 11. Polypodiaceae: Thelypteris poiteana (81), T. serrata (82), T. torresiana (83), T. totta (84), Vittaria graminifolia (85), V. lineata (86)

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12

Plate 12. Salviniaceae: Salvinia radula ‘microspore’ (87) and ‘megaspore’ (87a); Schizaeaceae: Lygodium venustum (88), L. radiatum (89). GYMNOSPERMAE—Gnetophyta; Gnetaceae: Gnetum leyboldii woodsonianum (90). ANGIOSPERMAE—Monocotyledoneae; Alismataceae: Sagittaria lancifolia (91); Amaryllidaceae: Amaryllis belladonna (92), Crinum erubescens (93), Hymenocallis pedalis [1/2x] (94)

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13

Plate 13. Araceae: Anthurium acutangulum (95), A. bakeri (96), A. bombacifolium [A. pentaphyllum bombacifolium ] (97), A. brownii (98), A. clavigerum (99), A. flexile (100), A. littorale [A. durandii ] (101), A. friedrichsthalii (102), A. gracile (103), A. ochranthum (104), A. scandens (105), A. tetragonum [A. salviniae ] (106), Caladium bicolor (107), Dieffenbachia longispatha (108), D. oerstedii (109), D. pittieri (110), Homalomena wendlandii (111), Monstera adansonii laniata (112), M. dubia (113), M. dilacerata (114)

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Plate 14. Araceae: Montrichardia arborescens (115), Philodendron fragrantissimum [P. schottianum ] (116), P. grandipes (117), P. guttiferum [P. aurantiifolium ] (118), P. inaequilaterum (119), P. hederaceum (120), P. nervosum [P. lewisii ] (121), P. panamense (122), P. pterotum (123), P. radiatum (124), P. scandens (125), P. tripartitum (126), Pistia stratiotes (127), Rhodospatha moritziana (128), Spathiphyllum friedrichsthalii (129), S. phryniifolium (130)

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Plate 15. Araceae: Stenospermation angustifolium (131), Syngonium erythrophyllum (132), S. podophyllum (133), Xanthosoma helleborifolium (134), X. pilosum [1/2 x] (135); Bromeliaceae: Aechmea magdalenae (136), A. pubescens (137), A. setigera (138)

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Plate 16. Bromeliaceae: Ananas comosus (139), Billbergia poiteana (140), Catopsis sessiliflora (141), Guzmania monostachia (142), Tillandsia bulbosa (143), Vriesea gladioliflora (144), V. heliconioides (145); Burmaniaceae: Thismia panamensis (146), Commelinaceae: Campelia zanonia (147), Commelina erecta (148), Callisia ciliata (149)

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Plate 17. Commelinaceae: Dichorisandra hexandra (150), Tripogandra serrulata (151); Cyclanthaceae: Asplundia alata (152), Carludovica drudei (153), C. palmata (154), Cyclanthus bipartitus (155), Ludovia integrifolia (156); Cyperaceae: Calyptrocarya glomerulata (157), Cladium jamaicense (158), Cyperus densicaespitosus [Kyllinga pumila] (159), C. diffusus (160), C. giganteus (161), C. haspan (162), C. luzulae (163), C. odoratus (164), C. sesquiflorus [Kyllinga odorata] (165), C. tenuis (166), Eleocharis caribaea [E. geniculata] (167), Fimbristylis dichotoma (168), Fuirena umbellata [1.5x] (169), Rhynchospora cephalotes (170), R. corymbosa (171), R. nervosa (172)

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Plate 18. Cyperaceae: Scirpus cubensis [Oxycaryum cubense] (173), Scleria macrophylla (174), S. mitis (175), S. pterota [S. melaleuca ] [1.5x] (176); Dioscoreaceae: Dioscorea alata (177), D. haenkeana (178), D. polygonoides (179), D. sapindoides (180), D. urophylla (181); Gramineae: Andropogon bicornis (182), A. glomeratus (183), A. virginicus (184), Anthephora hermaphrodita (185), Axonopus compressus (186), Bambusa arundinacea (187), Cenchrus brownii (188), Chloris radiata (189)

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Plate 19. Gramineae: Cynodon dactylon (190), Digitaria ciliaris (191), Eleusine indica (192), Homolepis aturensis (193), Hyparrhenia rufa (194), Hymenachne amplexicaulis (195), Ichnanthus pallens (196), Ischaemum indicum (197), I. rugosum (198), Lasiacis procerrima [1.5x] (199), L. oaxacensis (200), Leptochloa virgata (201), Leersia hexandra (202), Lithachne pauciflora ( 203), Olyra latifolia (204), Oplismenus burmanni (205), O. hirtellus (206)

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Plate 20. Gramineae: Orthoclada laxa (207), Oryza latifolia (208), Panicum fasciculatum [Brachiaria fasciculata] (209), P. grande (210), P. maximum (211), P. pilosum (212), P. polygonatum (213), P. pulchellum (214), Paspalidium geminatum (215), Paspalum notatum (216), P. paniculatum (217), P. plicatulum (218), P. virgatum (219), P. decumbens (220)

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Plates 21 - 30
21

Plate 21. Gramineae: Paspalum conjugatum (221), Pharus latifolius (222), P. parvifolius (223), Phragmites australis (224), Polytrias amaura (225), Rhipidocladum racemiflorum (226), Saccharum officinarum (227), S. spontaneum (228), Schizachyrium microstachyum (229), Setaria geniculata (230), S. paniculifera (231), S. vulpiseta (232), Sporobolus indicus (233), Streptochaeta sodiroana (234); Haemodoraceae: Xiphidium caeruleum (235); Liliaceae: Cordyline fruticosa (236)

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Plate 22. Marantaceae: Calathea insignis [1/2x] (237), C. latifolia (238), C. lutea [1/2x] (239), C. marantifolia [1/2x] (240), Ischnosiphon leucophaeus [1/2x] (241), Stromanthe jacquinii (242); Musaceae: Heliconia irrasa (243), H. catheta [H. platystachys] (244), H. latispatha (245), Musa sapientum (246)

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Plate 23. Orchidaceae: Aspasia epidendroides (247), Brassia maculata (248), Catasetum bicolor [1/2 x] (249), Cattleya skinneri [C. patinii ] (250), Chysis maculata [1/2 x] (251), Coryanthes maculata [1/2 x] (252), Cochleanthes aromatica (253), Dichaea panamensis (254), Encyclia cordigera (255), E. pentotis (256), Epidendrum coronatum (257), E. difforme (258), E. nocturnum (259), E. stangeanum [2x] (260), E. schlechterianum [2x] (261), Eulophia alta (262)

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Plate 24. Orchidaceae: Gongora quinquenervis (263), G. tricolor [G. fulva] (264), Habenaria pauciflora [H. trifida] (265), Ionopsis satyrioides [2x] (266), I. utricularioides [2x] (267), Leochilus scriptus (268), Lockhartia oerstedii [2x] (269), Lycaste powellii (270), Masdevallia rolfeana [2x] (271), Maxillaria friedrichsthalii [1/2 x] (272), M. neglecta [2x] (273), M. uncata (274), M. variabilis (275), Mormodes roseum (276), Notylia barkeri [2x] (277), Oncidium ampliatum [2x] (278)

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Plate 25. Orchidaceae: Ornithocephalus stipitatum (279), O. powellii [1/2 x] (280), Palmorchis nitida [2x] (281), P. powellii [2x] (282), Peristeria elata [1/2 x] (283), Pleurothallis arietina [2x] (284), Polystachya masayensis [2x] (285), Scaphyglottis reedii [2x] (286), Sievekingia suavis (287), Sobralia fragrans (288), S. suaveolens (289), S. panamensis [S. fenzliana ] (290), Spiranthes schappneri (291), Teuscheria pickiana [2x] (292), Trichocentrum capistratum (293), Trichopilia maculata (294), T. subulata (295), Trigonidium egertonianum [2x] (296), Vanilla pompona (297), Xylobium foveatum (298)

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Plate 26. Palmae: Astrocaryum standleyanum (299), Bactris barronis (300), B. coloniata (301), B. gasipaes (302), B. major (303), Chamaedorea wendlandiana [C. tepejilote] (304), Cocos nucifera (305), Cryosophila warscewiczii (306), Desmoncus panamensis (307), Elaeis oleifera (308), Geonoma cuneata (309), G. interrupta (310), G. procumbens (311)

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Plate 27. Palmae: Oenocarpus panamanus [O. mapora ] (312), Phytelephas microcarpa (313), Scheelea zonensis (314), Socratea durissima [S. exorrhiza] (315), Synechanthus warscewiczianus (316); Pontederiaceae: Eichhornia azurea (317), E. crassipes (318), Pontederia rotundifolia (319)

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Plate 28. Smilacaceae: Smilax lanceolata (320), S. mollis (321), S. panamensis (322), S. spinosa (323), S. spissa (324), Typhaceae: Typha domingensis (325); Zingiberaceae: Costus allennii (326); C. guanaiensis macrostrobilus [1/2 x] (327), C. laevis (328), C. pulverulentus (329), C. scaber (330), C. villosissimus (331). ANGIOSPERMAE—Dicotyledoneae; Acanthaceae: Aphelandra sinclairiana (332), Blechum costaricense (333), Elytraria imbricata (334)

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Plate 29. Acanthaceae: Herpetacanthus panamensis (335), Hygrophila guianensis [H. costata ] (336), Justicia graciliflora (337), J. pectoralis (338), Mendoncia gracilis (339), Nelsonia brunelloides (340), Ruellia metallica (341), Teliostachya alopecuroidea (342)

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Plate 30. Acanthaceae: Thunbergia erecta (343), Tricanthera gigantea (344); Amaranthaceae: Alternanthera ficoidea [A. paronychioides ] (345), A. sessilis (346), Chamissoa altissima (347), Cyathula prostrata (348), Gomphrena decumbens [G. serrata ] (349), Iresine angustifolia (350); I. celosia [I. diffusa ](351); Anacardiaceae: Anacardium excelsum (352), A. occidentale (353)

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Plates 31 - 40
31

Plate 31. Anacardiaceae: Astronium graveolens (354), Mangifera indica (355), Mosquitoxylum jamaicense (356), Spondias mombin (357), S. radlkoferi (358); Annonaceae: Anaxagorea panamensis (359), Annona acuminata [1/2x] (360), A. glabra [1/2x] (361), A. hayesii (362)

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Plate 32. Annonaceae: Annona muricata [1/4x] (363), A. spraguei (364), Crematosperma sp. (365), Desmopsis panamensis (366), Guatteria dumetorum (367), Unonopsis pittieri (368), Xylopia frutescens (369)

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33

Plate 33. Apocynaceae: Allamanda cathartica (370), Aspidosperma cruenta (371), A. megalocarpon (372), Catharanthus roseus (373), Forsteronia myriantha (374), F. peninsularis (375), Lacmellea panamensis (376), Malouetia guatemalensis (377)

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34

Plate 34. Apocynaceae: Mandevilla subsagittata (378), M. villosa (379), Mesechites trifida (380), Odontadenia macrantha (381), O. punticulosa (382), Prestonia acutifolia (383)

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Plate 35. Apocynaceae: Prestonia ipomaeifolia (384), P. obovata (385), P. portobellensis (386), Rhabdadenia biflora [1/2x] (387), Stemmadenia grandiflora (388)

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Plate 36. Apocynaceae: Thevetia ahouai (389), Tabernaemontana arborea (390); Araliaceae: Dendropanax arboreus (391), D. stenodontus (392), Didymopanax morototoni [Schlefflera morototoni] (393), Oreopanax capitatus (394), Polyscias guilfoylei (395); Aristolochiaceae: Aristolochia chapmaniana [A. tonduzii ] (396), A. gigantea [A. cordiflora ] (397), A. pilosa (398)

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Plate 37. Asclepiadaceae: Asclepias curassavica (399), Blepharodon mucronatum (400), Cynanchum cubense (401), C. recurvum [Tassadia obovata ] (402), Fischeria funebris [F. blepharopetala ] (403), Gonolobus allenii (404), Matelea pinquifolia (405)

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Plate 38. Asclepiadaceae: Marsdenia crassipes (406), Matelea trianae (407), M. viridiflora [M. denticulata ] (408), Sarcostemma clausum (409); Begoniaceae: Begonia filipes [B. hirsuta ] (410), B. guaduensis (411), B. patula [B. fischeri ] (412)

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Plate 39. Bignoniaceae: Adenocalymma apurense (413), A. arthropetiolatum (414), Amphilophium paniculatum (415), Anemopaegma chrysoleucum (416), Arrabidaea candicans (417), A. chica (418), A. corallina (419)

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Plate 40. Bignoniaceae: Arrabidaea florida (420), A. patellifera (421), A. verrucosa (422), Callichlamys latifolia (423), Ceratophytum tetragonolobum (424), Clytostoma binatum (425), Cydista aequinoctialis (426), C. heterophylla (427)

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Plates 41 - 50
41

Plate 41. Bignoniaceae: Jacaranda copaia spectabilis (428), Macfadyena unguis-cati (429), Martinella obovata (430), Paragonia pyramidata (431), Phryganocydia corymbosa (432), Pithecoctenium crucigerum (433)

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Plate 42. Bignoniaceae: Pleonotoma variabilis (435), Spathodea campanulata (434), Stizophyllum riparium (436), Tabebuia guayacan (437), T. chrysantha [T. ochracea neocrysantha ] (438), T. ochracea neocrysantha (439), T. rosea (440)

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Plate 43. Bignoniaceae: Tynanthus croatianus (441), Xylophragma seemannianum (442); Bixaceae: Bixa orellana (443); Bombacaceae: Bombacopsis quinata [Pochota quinata] (444), B. sessilis [Pochota sessilis] (445), Cavanillesia platanifolia (446)

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Plate 44. Bombacaceae: Ceiba pentandra (447), Ochroma pyramidale [1/2 x] (448), Pachira aquatica (449), Pseudobombax septenatum (450), Quararibea asterolepis (451)

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Plate 45. Bombacaceae: Quararibea pterocalyx (452); Boraginaceae: Cordia alliodora (453), C. bicolor (454), C. panamensis (455), C. lasiocalyx (456), C. spinescens (457)

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Plate 46. Boraginaceae: Heliotropium indicum (458), Tournefortia angustiflora (459), T. bicolor (460), T. cuspidata (461), T. hirsutissima (462), T. maculata (463); Burseraceae: Bursera simaruba (464), Protium costaricense (465), P. tenuifolium sessiliflorum (466), Tetragastris panamensis (467), Trattinnickia aspera (468), Protium panamense (469); Cactaceae: Epiphyllum phyllanthus (470)

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Plate 47. Cactaceae: Epiphyllum phyllanthus rubrocoronatum (471), Rhipsalis cassytha [R. baccifera ] (472); Campanulaceae: Centropogon cornutus (473); Capparaceae: Capparis frondosa (474), Cleome parviflora (475); Caricaceae: Carica cauliflora (476), Carica papaya (477), Jacaratia spinosa (478); Caryophyllaceae: Drymaria cordata (479); Celastraceae: Maytenus schippii (480); Chrysobalanaceae [Rosaceae]: Hirtella americana (481), H. racemosa (482), H. triandra (483), Licania hypoleuca (484), L. platypus (485)

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Plate 48. Cochlospermaceae: Cochlospermum vitifolium (486); Combretaceae: Combretum cacoucia (487), C. decandrum (488), C. fruticosum (489), C. laxum laxum (490), Terminalia amazonia (491), T. chiriquensis [T. oblonga ] (492); Compositae: Ayapana elata (493), Baccharis trinervis (494), Baltimora recta (495), Calea prunifolia [C. jamaicensis ] (496), Chaptalia nutans (497), Chromolaena odorata (498), Clibadium asperum (499), C. surinamense [C. asperum] (500), Conyza apurensis (501), C. bonariensis (502), Eclipta alba [E. prostrata ] (503), Elephantopus mollis (504)

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Plate 49. Compositae: Eleutheranthera ruderalis (505), Emilia sonchifolia (506), Erechtites hieracifolia cacalioides (507),Fleischmannia microstemon (508), F. sinclairii (509), Hebeclinium macrophyllum (510), Heterocondylus vitalbae (511), Koanophyllon wetmorei (512), Melampodium divaricatum (513), Melanthera aspera (514), Mikania guaco (515), M. hookeriana (516), M. leiostachya (517), M. micrantha (518), M. tonduzii (519), Neurolaena lobata (520), Pluchea odorata (521), Pseudoelephantopus spicatus (522)

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Plate 50. Compositae: Rolandra fruticosa (523), Schistocarpha oppositifolia [S. eupatorioides ] (524), Spilanthes alba (525), Spiracantha cornifolia (526), Synedrella nodiflora (527), Tridax procumbens (528), Verbesina gigantea (529), Vernonia canescens [V. arborescens ] (530), V. cinerea (531), V. patens (532), Wedelia trilobata (533), Wulffia baccata (534); Connaraceae: Cnestidium rufescens (535), Connarus panamensis (536), C. turczaninowii (537), Rourea glabra (538); Convolvulaceae: Aniseia martinicensis (539)

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Plates 51 -60
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Plate 51. Convolvulaceae: Ipomoea batatas (540), I. phillomega (541), I. quamoclit (542), I. squamosa (543), I. tiliacea (544), Iseia luxurians (545)

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Plate 52. Convolvulaceae: Maripa panamensis (546), Merremia umbellata (547), Operculina codonantha (548)

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Plate 53. Cucurbitaceae: Cayaponia glandulosa (549), C. granatensis (550), C. racemosa (551), Fevillea cordifolia (552), Gurania coccinea (553), G. makoyana (554), G. megistantha [2x] (555), Melothria pendula (556), M. trilobata (557)

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Plate 54. Cucurbitaceae: Momordica charantia (558), Psiguria bignoniacea [1/2x] (559), P. warscewiczii [1/2x] (560), Posadaea sphaerocarpa (561), Sicydium tamnifolium (562); Dilleniaceae: Davilla nitida (563), Doliocarpus dentatus (564), D. major (565)

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Plate 55. Dilleniaceae: Doliocarpus multiflorus ( 566), D. olivaceus (567), Saurauia laevigata (568), Tetracera hydrophila (569), T. portobellensis (570), T. volubilis (571); Ebenaceae: Diospyros artanthifolia (572); Elaeocarpaceae: Muntingia calabura (573), Sloanea terniflora (574), S. zuliaensis (575); Erythroxylaceae: Erythroxylum multiflorum [E. skutchii ] (576), E. panamense (577)

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Plate 56. Euphorbiaceae: Acalypha arvensis (578), A. diversifolia (579), A. macrostachya (580), Adelia triloba (581), Alchornea costaricensis (582), A. latifolia (583), Chamaesyce hirta (584), C. hypericifolia (585), C. hyssopifolia (586), C. thymifolia (587), Codiaeum variegatum (588), Croton billbergianus (589), C. hirtus (590), C. panamensis [C. pyriticus ] (591)

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Plate 57. Euphorbiaceae: Dalechampia cissifolia panamensis (592), D. dioscoreifolia (593), D. tiliifolia (594), Drypetes standleyi (595), Garcinia nutans (596)

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Plate 58. Euphorbiaceae: Hura crepitans (597), Hyeronima laxiflora [H. alchorneoides] (598), Jatropha curcas (599), Mabea occidentalis (600), Manihot esculenta [2x] (601), Margaritaria nobilis (602), Omphalea diandra (603), Phyllanthus acuminatus (604), P. amarus (605), Poinsettia heterophylla [Euphorbia heterophylla] (606)

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59

Plate 59. Euphorbiaceae: Sapium caudatum [S. aucuparium] (607); Flacourtiaceae: Banara guianensis (608), Casearia aculeata (609), C. arguta (610), C. arborea (611), C. commersoniana (612), C. corymbosa (613), C. guianensis (614), C. sylvestris (615), Hasseltia floribunda (616), Laetia procera (617), L. thamnia (618), Lindackeria laurina (619), Tetrathylacium johansenii (620), Xylosma oligandrum (621)

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60

Plate 60. Flacourtiaceae: Zuelania guidonia (622); Gentianaceae: Chelonanthus alatus (623), Schultesia lisianthoides (624), Voyria tenella (625), V. truncata (626), Coutobea spicata (627); Gesneriaceae: Besleria laxiflora (628), Chrysothemis friedrichsthaliana (629), Columnea billbergiana (630), C. purpurata (631)

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Plates 61 -70
61

Plate 61. Gesneriaceae: Diastema racemiferum (632), Drymonia serrulata (633), Kohleria tubiflora (634), Nautilocalyx panamensis (635); Guttiferae: Calophyllum longifolium (636), Clusia odorata (637), Havetiopsis flexilis (638), Mammea americana (639), Marila laxiflora (640), Rheedia acuminata [Garcinia madruno] (641), R. edulis [Garcinia intermedia](642)

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62

Plate 62. Guttiferae: Symphonia globulifera (643), Tovomita longifolia (644), T. stylosa (645), Tovomitopsis nicaraguensis (646), Vismia baccifera (647), V. billbergiana (648), V. macrophylla (649); Hippocrateaceae: Anthodon panamense (650), Hippocratea volubilis (651), Hylenaea praecelsa (652), Prionostemma aspera (653), Tontelea richardii (654); Humiriaceae: Vantanea occidentalis (655)

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63

Plate 63. Labiatae: Coleus blumei [Solenostemon scutellarioides ] (656), Hyptis brevipes (657), H. capitata (658), H. mutabilis (659), Salvia occidentalis (660); Lacistemataceae: Lacistema agrregatum (661), Lozania pittieri (662); Lauraceae: Beilschmiedia pendula (663), Nectandra cissiflora (664), N. globosa (665), N. purpurascens [N. fuscobarbata ] (666), N. savannarum (667), Ocotea oblonga (668), O. skutchii [ O. whiteii](669), Persea americana (670), Phoebe mexicana [P. cinnamomifolia ] (671), Ocotea cernua (672), O. pyramidata [O. puberula ] (673); Lecythidaceae: Couratari panamensis (674), Grias fendleri [G. cauliflora ] (675), Gustavia fosteri (676), G. superba (677); Leguminosae; Caesalpinioideae: Bauhinia guianensis (678), B. reflexa (679)

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64

Plate 64. Leguminosae; Caesalpinioideae: Brownea macrophylla (680), Cassia fruticosa [Senna dariensis gatunensis] (681), C. obtusifolia [Senna obtusifolia] (682), Caesalpinia pulcherrima (683), Cassia reticulata [Senna reticulata] (684), C. undulata [Senna undulata ] (685), Cynometra bauhiniaefolia [2x] (686), Hymenaea courbaril (687), Peltogyne purpurea (688), Prioria copaifera (689), Schizolobium parahybum (690)

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65

Plate 65. Leguminosae; Caesalpinioideae: Swartzia panamensis (691), S. simplex grandiflora (692), S. simplex ochnacea [S. simplex continentalis] (693), Tachigalia versicolor (694); Mimosoideae: Acacia acanthophylla (695), A. glomerosa (696), A. hayesii (697), A. melanoceras (698), A. riparia (699), Adenopodia polystachya (700), Albizia gauchapele [1/2x] (701), Entada monostachya (702), Enterolobium cyclocarpum (703), Inga cocleensis [1/2x] (704), I. fagifolia [1/2x] (705), I. goldmanii [1/4x] (706), I. hayesii [1/4x] (707), I. marginata [1/2x] (708), I. minutula [1/4x] (709)

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66

Plate 66. Leguminosae; Mimosoideae: Inga mucuna [1/4x] (710), I. multijuga [1/2x] (711), I. pauciflora [1/2x] (712), I. pezizifera [1/2x] (713), I. punctata [1/2x] (714), I. quaternata [1/2x] (715), I. ruiziana (716), I. sapindoides (717), I. spectabilis [1/4x] (718), I. thibaudiana [1/4x] (719), I. umbellifera [1/2x] (720), I. vera spuria (721), Leucaena multicapitula [1/2x] (722), Pithecellobium dinizii (723), Mimosa casta (724), M. pigra (725), M. pudica (726)

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67

Plate 67. Leguminosae; Mimosoideae: Pithecellobium macradenium (727), P. rufescens (728), P. hymeneaefolium [1/2x] (729); Papilionoideae: Aeschynomene americana glandulosa (730), A. ciliata (731), A. sensitiva (732), Andira inermis (733), Cajanus bicolor (734), Calopogonium coeruleum (735), C. mucunoides (736), Centrosema pubescens (737), Canavalia dictyota (738)

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68

Plate 68. Leguminosae; Papilionoideae: Clitoria javitensis (739), C. rubiginosa [C. falcata ] (740), Crotalaria retusa (741), C. cajanifolia (742), Dalbergia brownei (743), Cymbosema roseum (744), Dalbergia monetaria (745), D. retusa (746), Desmodium adscendens (747), D. axillare (748), D. axillare acutifolium (749), D. axillare stoloniferum (750)

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69

Plate 69. Leguminosae; Papilionoideae: Desmodium cajanifolium (751), D. canum [D. incanum] (752), D. distortum (753), D. tortuosum (754), D. scorpiurus (755), D. triflorum (756), D. wydlerianum (757), Dioclea guianensis (758), D. reflexa (759)

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70

Plate 70. Leguminosae; Papilionoideae: Dioclea wilsonii (760), Dipteryx panamensis [D. oleifera] (761), Erythrina costaricensis (762), E. fusca (763), Indigofera mucronata [I. jamaicensis](764), Lonchocarpus pentaphyllus (765), L. velutinus (766), Machaerium arboreum (767), M. floribundum (768), M. kegelii (769), M. microphyllum (770), M. milleflorum (771), M. riparium (772), M. seemannii (773), Mucuna mutisiana (774)

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Plates 71 -80
71

Plate 71. Leguminosae; Papilionoideae: Mucuna rostrata (775), Myroxylon balsamum pereirae (776), Ormosia coccinea subsimplex (777), O. macrocalyx (778), Platymiscium pinnatum (779), Platypodium elegans (780), Pterocarpus officinalis (781), P. rohrii (782), Rhynchosia pyramidalis (783), Phaseolus peduncularis (784), P. trichocarpus (785), Teramnus uncinatus (786), T. volubilis (787), Vatairea erythrocarpa (788), Vigna vexillata [1/2x] (789)

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72

Plate 72. Lentibulariaceae: Utricularia foliosa (790), U. obtusa (791); Loganiaceae: Spigelia anthelmia (792), S. humboldtiana (793), Strychnos brachistantha (794), S. darienensis (795), S. panamensis (796); Loranthaceae: Oryctanthus alveolatus (797), O. cordifolius (798), O. occidentalis (799), Phoradendron quadrangulare (800), Phthirusa pyrifolia (801)

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73

Plate 73. Loranthaceae: Struthanthus orbicularis (802); Lythraceae: Adenaria floribunda (803), Cuphea carthagenensis (804), Lafoensia punicifolia (805); Malpighiaceae: Banisteriopsis cornifolia [B. wurdackii] (806), Bunchosia cornifolia (807), Byrsonima crassifolia (808), B. spicata (809), Heteropteris laurifolia (810), Hiraea faginea (811), H. grandifolia (812), H. quapara (813), H. reclinata (814)

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74

Plate 74. Malpighiaceae: Malpighia romeroana (815), Mascagnia hippocrateoides (816), M. nervosa (817), Spachea membranacea (818), Stigmaphyllon ellipticum (819), S. lindenianum (820), S. hypargyreum (821), S. puberum (822), Tetrapteris seemannii (823)

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75

Plate 75. Malpighiaceae: Tetrapteris discolor (824), T. macrocarpa (825); Malvaceae: Abelmoschus moschatus (826), Hampea appendiculata longicalyx (827), Hibiscus bifurcatus (828), H. rosa-sinensis (829), H. sororius (830)

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76

Plate 76. Malvaceae: Pavonia dasypetala [Lopimia dasypetala] [1/4x] (831), P. paniculata [1/4 x] (832), P. rosea [P. schiedeana] [1/4x] (833), Sida acuta (834), S. rhombifolia (835); Marcgraviaceae: Marcgravia nepenthoides (836), Souroubea sympetala (837); Melastomataceae: Aciotis levyana (838), Adelobotrys adscendens (839), Arthrostema alatum (840), Bellucia grossularioides (841), Clidemia capitellata (842), C. collina (843), C. dentata (844), C. octona (845), C. purpureo-violacea [C. discolor] (846), C. septuplinervia (847), Conostegia bracteata [2x] (848), C. cinnamomea (849), C. speciosa (850), C. xalapensis (851)

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77

Plate 77. Melastomataceae: Henriettea succosa (852), Leandra dichotoma (853), Miconia affinis (854), M. argentea (855), M. borealis [M. minutiflora] (856), M. elata (857), M. hondurensis (858), M. impetiolaris (859), M. lacera (860), M. lateriflora (861), M. lonchophylla (862), M. nervosa (863), M. prasina (864), M. rufostellulata (865), M. serrulata (866), M. shattuckii (867), Mouriri myrtilloides parvifolia (868), Ossaea quinquenervia (869), Schwackaea cupheoides (870), Tibouchina longifolia (871), Topobea praecox (872); Meliaceae: Cedrela odorata (873), Guarea grandifolia (874), G. glabra (875), Trichilia hirta (876), T. cipo (877), T. pallida (878), T. pleeana (879)

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78

Plate 78. Menispermaceae: Abuta panamensis (880), A. racemosa (881), Chondrodendron tomentosum (882), Cissampelos pareira (883), C. tropaeolifolia (884), Odontocarya tamnoides canescens (885), O. truncata (886); Menyanthaceae: Nymphoides indica (887); Monimiaceae: Siparuna guianensis (888), S. pauciflora (889); Moraceae: Artocarpus altilis (890), Brosimum alicastrum boliviensis (891), Castilla elastica (892), Cecropia insignis (893), C. longipes (894), C. peltata (895), Coussapoa magnifolia [C. asperifolia magnifolia ] (896), Dorstenia contrajerva ( 897), Ficus bullenei (898), F. citrifolia (899), F. colubrinae (900), F. costaricana (901), F. dugandii (902), F. insipida (903), F. maxima (904), F. nymphaeaefolia (905), F. obtusifolia (906), F. paraensis (907), F. perforata (908), F. pertusa (909), F. popenoei (910), F. trigonata (911), F. yoponensis (912), Maquira costaricana (913), Olmedia aspera [Trophis caucana] (914), Perebea xanthochyma (915), Poulsenia armata (916), Pourouma guianensis [P. bicolor] (917), Sorocea afinis (918), Trophis racemosa (919); Myristicaceae: Virola sebifera (920), V. surinamensis (921)

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79

Plate 79. Myrsinaceae: Ardisia bartlettii (922), A. fendleri (923), A. pellucida (924), Parathesis microcalyx (925), Stylogyne standleyi (926); Myrtaceae: Aulomyrcia zetekiana (927), Calycolpus warszewiczianus (928), Eugenia coloradensis (929), E. galalonensis (930), E. nesiotica (931), E. uniflora (932), E. venezuelensis (933), E. oerstedeana (934), E. principium (935), Myrcia fosteri (936), M. gatunensis (937), Psidium anglohondurensis (938), P. friedrichsthalianum (939), P. guajava (940), Syzygium jambos (941); Nyctaginaceae: Guapira standleyana (942), Neea amplifolia (943), Pisonia aculeata (944); Nymphaeaceae: Nymphaea ampla (945), N. blanda (946); Ochnaceae: Cespedezia macrophylla (947), Ouratea lucens (948)

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80

Plate 80. Olacaceae: Heisteria concinna (949), H. costaricensis (950), H. longipes [H. cyanocarpa ] (951); Onagraceae: Ludwigia decurrens [1/2x ] (952), L. helminthorrhiza (953), L. leptocarpa [1/2x] (954), L. octovalvis [1/2x] (955), L. torulosa (956); Oxalidaceae: Averrhoa carambola (957)

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Plates 81 -90
81

Plate 81. Passifloraceae: Passiflora ambigua (958), P. auriculata (959), P. biflora (960), P. coriacea (961), P. foetida isthmia [1/2x ] (962)

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82

Plate 82. Passifloraceae: P. menispermifolia (963), P. nitida (964), P. punctata (965), P. seemannii [1/2x] (966), P. vitifolia (967), P. williamsii (968)

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83

Plate 83. Phytolaccaceae: Microtea debilis (969), Petiveria alliacea (970), Phytolacca rivinoides (971), Rivina humilis (972); Piperaceae: Peperomia ciliolibractea (973), P. cordulata (974), P. glabella (975), P. killipi (976), P. macrostachya (977), P. mameiana (978), P. obscurifolia (979), P. obtusifolia (980), P. rotundifolia (981), Piper aequale (982), P. arboreum (983), P. arieianum (984), P. auritum (985), P. carrilloanum (986), P. cordulatum (987), P. culebranum [P. colonense] (988), P. darienense (989), P. dilatatum (990), P. grande (991), P. hispidum (992), P. imperiale (993), P. marginatum (994), P. peracuminatum (995), P. perlasense (996), P. pseudo-garagaranum (997), P. pubistipulum (998), P. reticulatum (999), P. villiramulum (1000), P. viridicaule (1001), Pothomorphe peltata (1002); Polygalaceae: Polygala paniculata (1003), Securidaca diversifolia (1004), S. tenuifolia [2x] (1005); Polygonaceae: Coccoloba acuminata (1006), C. coronata (1007), C. manzanillensis (1008), C. parimensis (1009), Polygonum acuminatum (1010)

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84

Plate 84. Polygonaceae: Polygonum hydropiperoides (1011), P. punctatum (1012), Triplaris cumingiana (1013); Portulacaceae: Portulaca oleracea (1014); Proteaceae: Roupala montana (1015); Rafflesiaceae: Apodanthes caseariae (1016); Rhamnaceae: Gouania adenophera (1017), G. lupuloides (1018), Colubrina glandulosa (1019); Rhizophoraceae: Cassipourea elliptica (1020); Rubiaceae: Alibertia edulis (1021), Alseis blackiana (1022), Amaioua corymbosa (1023), Antirrhea trichantha (1024), Bertiera guianensis (1025), Borreria densiflora (1026), B. latifolia (1027), B. laevis (1028), B. ocimoides (1029)

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85

Plate 85. Rubiaceae: Calycophyllum candidissimum (1030), Cephaelis ipecacuanha (1031), C. tomentosa (1032), Chimarrhis parviflora (1033), Chiococca alba (1034), Chomelia spinosa (1035), Cosmibuena skinneri (1036), Coussarea curvigemmia (1037), Coutarea hexandra (1038), Diodia denudata (1039), D. sarmentosa (1040), Faramea luteovirens (1041), F. occidentalis (1042), Genipa americana (1043), Geophila repens (1044), Guettarda foliacea (1045)

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86

Plate 86. Rubiaceae: Hamelia axillaris (1046), H. patens (1047), Hoffmannia woodsonii (1048), Isertia haenkeana (1049), Ixora coccinea (1050), Macrocnemum glabrescens (1051), Oldenlandia corymbosa (1052), Manettia reclinata (1053), Palicourea guianensis (1054), Pentagonia macrophylla (1055), Pogonopus speciosus (1056), Posoqueria latifolia (1057), Psychotria acuminata (1058)

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87

Plate 87. Rubiaceae: Psychotria brachiata (1059), P. brachybotrya (1060), P. capitata (1061), P. carthaginensis (1062), P. emetica (1063), P. chagrensis (1064), P. deflexa (1065), P. furcata (1066), P. granadensis [P. tenuifolia] (1067), P. horizontalis (1068), P. grandis (1069)

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88

Plate 88. Rubiaceae: Psychotria limonensis (1070), P. marginata (1071), P. micrantha (1072), P. pittieri (1073), P. psychotriaefolia (1074), P. pubescens (1075), P. racemosa (1076), P. uliginosa (1077), Randia armata (1078), R. formosa (1079), Spermacoce tenuior (1080), Sabicea villosa (1081), Tocoyena pittieri (1082)

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89

Plate 89. Rubiaceae: Uncaria tomentosa (1083), Warszewiczia coccinea (1084); Rutaceae: Citrus aurantifolia (1085), C. aurantium (1086), C. grandis (1087), C. limon (1088), C. reticulata (1089), C. sinensis (1090), Zanthoxylum belizense (1091), Z. panamense (1092), Z. procerum (1093), Z. setulosum (1094); Sapindaceae: Allophyllus psilospermus (1095), Cupania cinerea (1096), C. latifolia (1097), C. rufescens (1098), C. sylvatica (1099), Paullinia baileyi (1100)

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90

Plate 90. Sapindaceae: Paullinia bracteosa (1101), P. fibrigera (1102), P. fuscescens glabrata (1103), P. glomerulosa (1104), P. pinnata (1105), P. rugosa (1106), P. turbacensis (1107), Serjania atrolineata (1108), S. circumvallata (1109), S. cornigera (1110), S. decapleuria (1111), S. mexicana (1112), S. pluvialiflorens (1113), S. paucidentata (1114)

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Plates 91 -97
91

Plate 91. Sapindaceae: Serjania rhombea (1115), S. trachygona (1116), Talisia nervosa (1117), T. princeps (1118), Thinouia myriantha (1119); Sapotaceae: Chrysophyllum cainito (1120), Cynodendron panamense (1121), Pouteria fossicola (1122), P. sapota (1123), P. stipitata (1124), P. unilocularis [P. reticulata] (1125); Saxifragaceae: Hydrangea peruviana (1126); Scrophulariaceae: Bacopa salzmannii (1127), Lindernia crustacea (1128), L. diffusa (1129), Mecardonia procumbens (1130), Scoparia dulcis (1131), Stemodia verticillata (1132); Simaroubaceae: Picramnia latifolia (1133), Quassia amara (1134), Simarouba amara typica (1135)

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92

Plate 92. Solanaceae: Browallia americana [2x] (1136), Capsicum annuum (1137), Cestrum latifolium [2x] (1138), C. megalophyllum [2x] (1139), C. nocturnum (1140), C. racemosum [2x] (1141), Cyphomandra allophylla (1142), Lycianthes maxonii (1143), C. hartwegii [2x] (1144), L. synanthera (1145), Markea ulei (1146), Physalis angulata (1147), P. pubescens (1148), Solanum antillarum [S. nudum ] (1149), S. arboreum (1150), S. argenteum (1151), S. asperum (1152), S. hayesii (1153), S. jamaicense (1154), S. lancaeifolium (1155)

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93

Plate 93. Solanaceae: S. ochraceo-ferrugineum [S. rudepannum ] (1156), S. rugosum (1157), S. subinerme (1158), S. umbellatum (1159), Witheringia solanacea (1160); Staphyleaceae: Turpinia occidentalis breviflora (1161); Sterculiaceae: Byttneria aculeata (1162), Guazuma ulmifolia (1163), Herrania purpurea (1164), Melochia lupulina (1165), Sterculia apetala (1166), Waltheria glomerata (1167), Theobroma cacao (1168), Melochia melissifolia (1169)

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94

Plate 94. Theaceae: Ternstroemia tepezapote (1170); Theophrastaceae: Jacquinia macrocarpa (1171); Tiliaceae: Apeiba membranacea [A. aspera] (1172), A. tibourbou (1173), Corchorus siliquosus (1174), Heliocarpus popayanensis [H. americanus] (1175), Luehea seemannii [1/2x] (1176), L. speciosa (1177)

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95

Plate 95. Tiliaceae: Trichospermum mexicanum [T. galeottii ] (1178), Triumfetta lappula [1/2x] (1179); Trigoniaceae: Trigonia floribunda [T. rugosa ] (1180); Turneraceae: Turnera panamensis (1181); Ulmaceae: Celtis iguanaeus (1182), C. schippii (1183), Trema micrantha (1184); Umbelliferae: Eryngium foetidum (1185), Hydrocotyle umbellata (1186), Spananthe paniculata (1187); Urticaceae: Boehmeria cylindrica (1188), Myriocarpa yzabalensis [M. longipes ] (1189), Pilea microphylla (1190), Pouzolzia obliqua (1191), Urera eggersii (1192); Verbenaceae: Aegiphila elata (1193)

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96

Plate 96. Verbenaceae: Aegiphila cephalophora (1194), A. panamensis (1195), Lantana camara (1196), Clerodendrum paniculatum (1197), Petrea aspera (1198), Stachytarpheta jamaicensis [1/4x] (1199), Vitex cooperi (1200); Violaceae: Hybanthus prunifolius (1201), Rinorea squamata (1202), R. sylvatica (1203)

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97

Plate 97. Vitaceae: Cissus erosa (1204), C. microcarpa (1205), C. pseudosicyoides (1206), C. rhombifolia (1207), C. sicyoides (1208), Vitis tiliifolia (1209); Vochysiaceae: Vochysia ferruginea (1210)

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